Module of Dental Surgery

The module of Dental surgery was founded by the decision of the academic council №1323 from 12.07.2011 by the division of the chair of dental surgery into 2 modules.

The chair of dental surgery was founded in 1962 based on the course of maxillofacial surgery at the chair of Hospital Surgery ASMI. Evgeny Feofanovich Chernov has been appointed as head of the chair.

Evgeny F. Chernov had made an invaluable contribution to preparation of scientific and pedagogical specialists. Despite the short but bright and fruitful life, Eugeny Feofanovich managed to prepare a lot of scientists and educators such as Ya.A.Raushenbah, R.G.Dmitrieva, A.N.Fokina, A.I.Himich, L.Ya.Zazulevskaya, D.S.Sagatbaev, T.K.Supiev, G.D.Mishina, K.E.Rysdavletov, V.V.Halitova, K.K.Kurakbaev, Sh.B.Kamalov, many of whom are leading experts now.

Organized by E.F Chernov, the chair of dental surgery still prepares highly skilled scientific and pedagogical specialists for dentistry of Kazakhstan. Here began their career professor D.L.Korytny, T.K.Supiev, L.Ya.Zazulevskaya, D.S.Sagatbaev, K.T.Tuleuov, K.Z.Shalabaeva, V.P.Rusanov, K. K.Kurakbaev, senior lecturers: T.U.Batyrov, Sh.B.Kamalov, B.A.Umbetyarov, H.L.Sagandykov, Z.K.Kurmangaliev, PhD in Medical Science  — R.N.Zhartybaev.

In 1974-1980 the chair had been managed by Maria Pavlovna Oskolkova, PhD in Medical Science and senior lecturer. As an experienced clinician and wonderful surgeon, M.P. Oskolkova made ​​a great contribution to the preparation of maxillofacial surgeons for the republic.

Zhaksylyk Bekbatyrovich Urazalinov is the permanent head of the chair since 1980. He has successfully combined his teaching with the responsible position of chief doctor of Republican dental clinic and chief dentist of the Kazakh SSR Ministry of Health.

Having organizational ability J.B. Urazalinov even in those years has made a great contribution to the development of dental services and dental education in Kazakhstan. Thanks to his efforts dental clinic ASMI received the status of the Republican, while remaining a training base for the dental chairs ASMI.

Zhaksylyk Bekbatyrovich has taken an active part in the life of the Institute (later University). From 1978 to 1984 Zhaksylyk Bekbatyrovich was dean of the Faculty of Dentistry ASMI, in 1989-1995, he served as Vice Rector for Clinical Affairs at NCI, and in 1995-2001, Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs.

He took an active part in organizing specialized Council for doctoral and master’s dissertations and is the permanent chairman since the council’s foundation. The organization of the Council was an important event in the development of dental science in Kazakhstan. During these years, there are protected 8 doctoral and more than 70 master’s dissertations.

Since its establishment, and especially in the 80 years of dental surgery chair maintained close scientific contacts with colleagues from Moscow, Leningrad, Kalinin, Minsk and other cities of the former Soviet Union.

Direct teachers and leaders of Oral Surgeons of Kazakhstan were outstanding representatives of the Soviet school of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, professors, leading scientists from all over the world: AI Evdokimov, VS Dmitriev, AA Limberg, N. Bazhanov, Y. Bernadskii, I. Ermolaev, VA Kozlov, V. Bezrukov, VM Soloviev, A. Grigoryan, V. Panikorovsky. Their work and their invaluable assistance have not been in vain. 9 from 21 doctors of medical sciences on a specialty of dentistry are maxillofacial surgeons. There are professors JB Urazalinov, TK Supiev, K.T.Toleuov, DS Sagatbaev, AG Kurashev, VP Rusanov, AJ Yesimov, KZ Shalabaeva, KK Kurakbaev. They go the way of their teachers, make feasible work in the development of oral and maxillofacial surgery and dental training of specialists in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The purpose of teaching in oral surgery module is the competence-based training  of a doctors by the medical specialty: — 051 302 «Dentistry», which owns the issues of theory and practice of all sections of dental surgery in accordance with the 5 fundamental competencies:

— Axiological competence: knows the principles of surgical dental care in peacetime and in wartime, has advanced understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of major diseases of the maxillofacial sphere.

— Operational competencies: having the skills of clinical examination of patients and generalization of data obtained for the differential diagnosis, knowing how to identify and implement properly a plan of complex pathogenetic treatment of patients with injuries and diseases of the maxillofacial localization, knowing the principles of preventive measures and prediction of the basic dental diseases.

Cognitive competence: knowing themselves and their patients, who can correctly perceive and estimate their colleagues, being able to control themselves, who can build relationships with people and flexibly react to difficult clinical situations.

  • The legal competence: knowing the legal framework of the organization and implementation of surgical dental care in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
  • Lifelong Learning Competence: being able to design their own educational trajectory throughout life, providing a competitiveness and success in a conditions of market of medicine.

 

Tasks of studying dental surgery on the module:

Cognitive competence: Study:

  • The history of dental surgery, the priority of native scientists in its development. The organization of surgical dental care, organizational and economic aspects of surgical dental branches and clinics, a normative equipment of workplaces;
  • Principles of patient examination by a dentist: knowledge of special and additional methods of research for differential diagnosis of dental diseases, radiological semiotics of dental and periodontal tissues;
  • Common complications of inflammatory diseases of maxillofacial region (sepsis, mediastinitis, thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, etc.) and their preventive measures;
  • Injuries to the teeth, jaws and soft tissues of the peace and wartime. Classification, statistics.
  • Features of the face soft tissue injuries. Features of the primary surgical treatment of face wounds. The periods of wound healing.
  • Fractures of the lower jaw: a body, branch, condyle. Fractures of the upper jaw of Le Fort I, II, III. Gunshot, open, closed, with the defect and without defect of soft tissues and bones;
  • Thermal, chemical, radiation and combined injuries of face, mouth and neck.
  • Neurological dental diseases. Trigeminal neuralgia and neuritis of the trigeminal and facial nerves, clinic, diagnosis and treatment.
  • Differential diagnostics of diseases of the temporomandibular joint, rheumatoid arthritis, pain dysfunction syndrome, osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis, contracture, ankylosis of the joint.
  • Principles of prevention, screening, diagnostics and comprehensive treatment of dentoalveolar deformities and anomalies of teeth and jaws;
  • Modern ideas about the biological nature of tumors. Organization of oncological services. Tumors of the maxillofacial region, and their etiology, clinical picture, diagnostics, prevention and treatment principles. The tasks of a dentist are in the organization of anti-tumor service; the principles of oncological alertness.
  • Types of defects and deformities of maxillofacial region. Methods of recovery operations, indications, contraindications.
  • Manifestations of AIDS and HIV infection in the maxillofacial region. Prevention.

An operational competence: Master the skills of:

  • Carry out a examination of patients with diseases of the maxillofacial region, including the examination of the soft tissues of the face, temporomandibular joint, salivary glands and regional lymph system: sensing the teeth, pathological periodontal pockets, fistulas and ducts of salivary glands, tooth percussion and thermometry: electric pulp test, the introduction of X-ray contrast substances in the maxillary sinus, fistula, oral, salivary glands, the definition of the mobility of the teeth and atrophy of the tissues in periodontal diseases, the implementation of diagnostic puncture, taking the material for the diagnostic study and implementation of functional diagnostic tests, analysis of the review, panoramic, and the sighting of dental and contrast X-rays, tomograms, electromyograms;
  • — To provide emergency medical care for fainting, collapse, shock, allergic reactions, fractures and bleeding, as well as emergency assistance related to the primary surgical treatment of wounds, venipuncture, and venesection, tracheotomy, etc., direct patients to specialized health care institutions; assist in emergency operations;
  • Develop a plan and tactics of treatment of inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region, to carry out treatment of patients with modern methods and means of medicine;
  • Carry out an autopsy abscesses and phlegmon of the maxillofacial region, sequestrectomy, puncture of the maxillary sinus, anterior rhinoscopy and nasal tamponade, cystotomy and cystectomy;
  • Carry out alcoholism of the branches of trigeminal nerve during neuralgia; remove concretions from the ducts of the salivary glands;
  • To treat injuries of maxillofacial region, to carry out a primary surgical treatment of wounds and burn surfaces, to stop bleeding in the wound and bandage vessels, reduce a dislocation fixed teeth, fragments of jaws and other facial bones in their fractures by imposing dressings, temporary fixation of fragments of jaws ligature armbands, barbed wire and standard tires, tires from fast setting plastics;
  • Remove small benign tumor on face and mouth, make bridles lips and tongue plastic.
  • Prescribe physiotherapy in the treatment process, supervise patients in the postoperative period, providing nursing and care, hygienic treatment of oral diseases and injuries in the maxillofacial region;
  • Identify comorbidities, to participate in the complex treatment of somatic diseases with medical specialists;

Axiological competence: Learn how to:

  • Basic principles of deontological and medical ethics.
  • Supervise the activities of middle and junior medical staff, to carry out health education among the population;

Legal jurisdiction:

  • To determine the working capacity of patients with diseases and injuries of the maxillofacial region, prepare lists of disability, various medical and financial reporting documentation;

Competence of lifelong learning:

  • Use of medical training, regulatory and reference books to solve professional problems.
  • To carry out organizational and methodical work, develop new effective treatments and to promote their implementation in practice.